Ikebana: Japanese Art of Flowers
Ikebana is the Japanese art of flower arrangement, one of the three classical Japanese arts of refinement. It is an art form similar to painting and sculpture but replaces pigment and plaster with natural plants, including flowers, branches, stems, leaves, and even moss. This ancient art form has a minimalist aesthetic and can be considered a form of Zen practice.
What is Ikebana
In Japanese, Ikebana is composed of two parts: “Ike” means to keep alive, and “bana” means flower. A perfect Ikebana is not simply an ornament, but a work of art that presents plants' inner beauty and expresses the flower designer's emotion. A sophisticated flower arrangement must strike a balance between color, line, form, and function. The balance and harmony are not only between the flowers but also between the flowers and the container.
Similar to other Japanese arts, respect for seasonality is one of the key principles of Ikebana. In Japanese culture, flowers and trees carry symbolic meaning and are associated with specific seasons, therefore, it is crucial to choose different flowers according to the seasons. In addition, Ikebana focuses more on emptiness and simplicity than Western-style flower arranging. Ikebana uses as few stems and leaves as possible to form an elegant silhouette and highlight the beauty of the flowers. In Ikebana, preserving some space between the materials is considered a must for a perfect design. As a result, Japanese Ikebana looks more light and simple than the magnificent and elaborate Western-style flower arrangement.
History of Ikebana
There are various theories about the origin of Ikebana. However, most people agree that Ikebana was originally brought to Japan around the 6th century with the introduction of Buddhism from China. It was originally a tribute to be placed on Buddhist altars. After its introduction, flower arranging quickly became popular and began to be studied and practiced among the nobility. During the Heian period (794-1185 CE), poetry collections, such as the Manyoshu and Kuchinwaka, included many poems about flowers.
The 14th century witnessed the rise of the warrior class. Feudal lords built niches in their homes and palaces to display their armor and showcase their wealth and power. With the advent of unification and peace, these niches began to be used to display works of art, including Ikebana. The modern Ikebana style was finally established during the Muromachi period (1336-1573 CE). It became a secular activity in the 15th century. Almost every house built in that time had niches for displaying Ikebana.
Types of Ikebana
The original Ikebana was very simple and consisted of only a few flowers and branches. Later, the styles and types of Ikebana were more diverse. In general, the styles can be divided into five：
- Rikka (standing flowers): This style is a Buddhist expression of the beauty of the natural landscape. Rikka is intended to symbolize the beauty of an idealized paradise, therefore, it is ornate and extravagant. The rules of Rikka construction, the positions, are The nine key positions were developed by Buddhist monks who incorporated Buddhist doctrine into Rikka’s positions. The nine key positions are: Shin (spiritual mountain), Uke (receiving), Hikae (waiting), Sho shi (waterfall), Soe (supporting branch), Nagashi (stream), Mitsukoshi (overlook), Do (body), and Mae oki (front body).
- Nageirebana (thrown-in flowers): Also known as Nageire, it is an unstructured design. Contrary to the form of the strict rules of Rikka, it is a freer way of arranging flowers. The feature of Nageire is that the flowers do not stand upright, but are placed naturally in a vase. Nageire style is strongly associated with Zen, and the arrangement represents an attempt to become one with the universe.
- Seika (pure flower): Its arrangement consists of three main parts: ten (heaven), chi (earth), and jin (man). They are the three positions of shin, soe, and uke in the R It is a simple style designed to present the beauty and uniqueness of the flowers, therefore, it is important to leave some space. It is a style of Ikebana that is often used to decorate the niche.
- Moribana (piled-up flowers): This is an Ikebana style of stereoscopic beauty. It is influenced by western-style flower arrangement style, focusing on natural-looking shapes and a pile of beautiful flowers. Its beauty can be appreciated from any angle.
- Jiyuka (free flower): This style stresses creative design. Any material, even non-plant materials, can be used in this style.